Slik gjør du en Raspberry Pi til en alltid på-BitTorrent-boks

Det er ideelt å ha en dedikert maskin for BitTorrent-klienten din, slik at du kan seed 24/7. Men det er energikrevende å la en full rigg være slått på og online så ofte. Gå inn på Raspberry Pi.

RELATERT: How-To Geek Guide for å måle energiforbruket ditt

De fleste stasjonære PC-er trekker ganske mye energi - vår beskjedne hjemmekontorserver bruker for eksempel nesten 200 dollar strøm per år. Raspberry Pi er derimot bygget rundt en mobil prosessor og nipper til energi som en kolibri. Kjernen til Raspberry Pi-kortet bruker mindre enn $ 3 energi per år, og til og med legger til noen få eksterne harddisker, vil du fortsatt holde de årlige driftskostnadene på mindre enn en burger og pommes frites.

I tillegg, når det gjelder nedlasting av torrenter, er en alltid pågående maskin konge. Med torrenter, jo mer du overvåker skyen og frø inn i den, desto bedre er forholdet ditt på trackeren din (selv om du er leeching fra offentlige trackere, sørger en alltid på maskin for at du vil være der når de sjeldne filene dukker opp) .

Hvis det høres bra ut, kan du lese videre når vi viser deg hvordan du kan gjøre din Pi til en helt fjernstyrt nedlastingsmaskin.

Hva trenger du

For denne opplæringen antar vi at du har en Raspberry Pi-enhet med Raspbian installert, har tilgang til enheten enten direkte via en tilkoblet skjerm og tastatur eller eksternt via SSH og VNC, og at du har en ekstern USB-stasjon (eller stasjoner) festet til den. Hvis du trenger å få fart på disse områdene, anbefaler vi sterkt å lese følgende guider i den rekkefølgen vi har dem oppført her:

  1. Alt du trenger å vite om å komme i gang med Raspberry Pi
  2. Slik konfigurerer du Raspberry Pi for ekstern skall, skrivebord og filoverføring
  3. Slik gjør du en Raspberry Pi til en nettverkslagringsenhet med lite strøm

Alt i den første opplæringen er nødvendig. den andre opplæringen er valgfri (men ekstern tilgang er utrolig praktisk å ha for dette prosjektet, ettersom en nedlastingsboks er en perfekt kandidat for en hodeløs bygning), og den viktigste delen av den tredje opplæringen er ganske enkelt å sette opp harddisken og konfigurere den for automatisk montering ved oppstart (som beskrevet i den tredje guiden).

RELATERT: Slik anonymiserer og krypterer du BitTorrent-trafikken

I tillegg, hvis du ikke er altfor kjent med innsatsen til å sette opp en BitTorrent-klient for anonym nedlasting, bør du lese om den. Du trenger absolutt en slags anonymiserende proxy eller VPN-system på plass for å kunne bruke BitTorrent trygt. Fullmakten nevnt i den guiden er billig og enkel, men en god VPN er vanligvis raskere og mer allsidig, så sjekk ut denne guiden hvis du vil ha en VPN i stedet.

Når du har gjennomgått alt materialet og har konfigurert Pi, er det på tide å gjøre det med å gjøre Pi til et lydløst nedlastingsdyr med ultra-lav effekt.

Trinn 1: Installer Deluge på Raspbian

Det er flere BitTorrent-klienter for Linux som er verdt å vurdere, men vi anbefaler Deluge. det er akkurat den rette balansen mellom funksjoner og fotavtrykk, slik at du ikke finner deg selv som ønsker en måned fra nå av at du hadde installert noe kraftigere.

Du kan konfigurere Deluge på flere måter, men ikke alle konfigurasjoner er egnet for denne hodeløse Pi-nedlastingsboksen. Mens de fleste bruker torrentklienten sin på skrivebordet som alle andre apper, fungerer dette ikke veldig bra for våre formål, fordi det betyr at hver gang du vil samhandle med torrents, må du logge på boksen over fjernkontrollen. skrivebordet og rotet med skrivebordsklienten. Det kaster bort tiden din og det kaster bort ressurser på Pi.

Du kan kjøre Deluge WebUI, som lar deg få tilgang til Deluge-klienten fra en nettleser på en annen maskin. Dette er fortsatt ikke vårt foretrukne alternativ, selv om det åpner deg potensialet for å bruke en smarttelefonapp for å se og kontrollere Deluge (mer om dette senere).

Vi anbefaler at du konfigurerer Deluge på den eksterne maskinen for å godta ThinClient-tilkoblinger. På denne måten kan vi bruke den faktiske Deluge-stasjonære klienten på en annen datamaskin (det være seg en Windows-, Linux- eller OS X-boks) for å kontrollere Raspberry Pi Deluge-installasjonen. Du får alle fordelene med skrivebordsklienten på ditt faktiske skrivebord, mens all handlingen skjer på fjernboksen.

Hvis du ikke kan bestemme mellom disse to alternativene, kan du faktisk bruke begge sammen, selv om det vil ta litt lengre tid å sette opp. Bare følg instruksjonene i begge seksjoner nedenfor for å gjøre det.

Alternativ ett: Sett opp Deluge for ThinClient Access

Ta deg tid til å oppdatere og oppgradere lagringsplassene dine før du gjør noe. Åpne en terminal og kjør følgende to kommandoer, den ene etter den andre:

sudo apt-get updatesudo apt-get upgrade

Når det er gjort, er det på tide å begynne å installere de nødvendige komponentene for ThinClient-oppsettet. Skriv inn følgende kommandoer:

sudo apt-get install delugedsudo apt-get install deluge-console

Dette vil laste ned Deluge-demonen og konsollinstallasjonspakker og kjøre dem. Når du blir bedt om å fortsette, skriver du Y. Etter at Deluge er ferdig installert, må du kjøre Deluge-demonen. Skriv inn følgende kommandoer:

delugedsudo pkill deluged

Dette starter Deluge-demonen (som oppretter en konfigurasjonsfil) og slår deretter av demonen. Vi skal redigere konfigurasjonsfilen og deretter starte den på nytt. Skriv inn følgende kommandoer for først å ta en sikkerhetskopi av den opprinnelige konfigurasjonsfilen og deretter åpne den for redigering:

cp ~/.config/deluge/auth ~/.config/deluge/auth.oldnano ~/.config/deluge/auth

Når du er inne i nano-teksteditoren, må du legge til en linje nederst i konfigurasjonsfilen med følgende konvensjon:

user:password:level

Hvor userer brukernavnet du vil ha for Deluge, passworder passordet du ønsker, og det leveler 10 (full tilgang / administrativt nivå for demonen). Så for våre formål brukte vi pi:raspberry:10. Når du er ferdig med å redigere, trykk Ctrl + X på tastaturet og lagre endringene når du blir bedt om det. Start deretter demonen og konsollen på nytt:

delugeddeluge-console

Hvis du starter en konsoll, gir du en feilkode i stedet for et pent, rent formatert konsollgrensesnitt, skriv "exit" og sørg for at du har startet opp demonen.

Når du er inne i konsollen, må du gjøre en rask konfigurasjonsendring. Skriv inn følgende:

config -s allow_remote Trueconfig allow_remoteexit

Kommandoene og tilsvarende utdata vil se ut som skjermbildet nedenfor.

This enables remote connections to your Deluge daemon and double checks that the config variable has been set. Now it’s time to kill the daemon and restart it one more time so that the config changes take effect:

sudo pkill delugeddeluged

At this point, your Deluge daemon is ready for remote access. Head to your normal PC (not the Raspberry Pi) and install the Deluge desktop program. You’ll find the installer for your operating system on the Deluge Downloads page. Once you’ve installed Deluge on your PC, run it for the first time; we need to make some quick changes.

Once launched, navigate to Preferences > Interface. Within the interface submenu, you’ll see a checkbox for “Classic Mode”. By default it is checked. Uncheck it.

Click OK and then restart the Deluge desktop client. This time, when Deluge starts, it will present you with the Connection Manager. Click the “Add” button and then input the IP address of the Raspberry Pi on your network, as well as the username and password you set during the earlier configuration. Leave the port at the default 58846. Click Add.

Back in the Connection Manager, you’ll see the entry for the Raspberry Pi; if all goes well, the indicator light will turn green like so:

Click Connect, and you’ll be kicked into the interface, connected to the remote machine:

It’s a fresh install, nary a .torrent in site, but our connection between the remote machine and the desktop client is a success!

Go ahead and configure the WebUI now (if you wish to do so), or skip down to the next step of this tutorial.

Option Two: Set Up Deluge for WebUI Access

Configuring the WebUI is significantly faster, and allows for using some mobile apps to access Deluge. But as we mentioned before, you’ll have access to fewer features than with the full ThinClient experience. For example, ThinClient can associate .torrent files with the Deluge ThinClient for automatic transfer to the Pi, but you can’t do this with the WebUI.

First, take a moment to update and upgrade your repositories. Open a Terminal and run the following two commands, one after the other:

sudo apt-get updatesudo apt-get upgrade

Then, to install the WebUI, run the following commands. Note: If you already installed the Deluge daemon in the ThinClient section of the tutorial, skip the first command here.

sudo apt-get install delugedsudo apt-get install python-makosudo apt-get install deluge-webdeluge-web

This sequence installs the Deluge daemon (if you didn’t already install it in the last section), Mako (a template gallery for Python that the WebUI needs), the WebUI itself, and then starts the WebUI program.

The default port for the WebUI is 8112. If you wish to change it, run the following commands:

sudo pkill deluge-webnano ~/.config/deluge/web.conf

This stops the WebUI and opens up the configuration file for it. Use nano to edit the line: “port”: 8112, and replace the 8112 with any port number above 1000 (as 1-1000 are reserved by the system).

Once you have the WebUI up and running, it’s time to connect to it using a web browser. You can use a browser on the Pi if you ever need to, but it’s not the most pleasant user experience and best left for emergencies. Open up a browser on your regular desktop machine and point it at the IP address of your Pi with the port you just chose (e.g. //192.168.1.13:8112 ).

You’ll be greeted with a password prompt (the default password is “deluge”) and be immediately encouraged to change it after you enter it for the first time. After that, you’ll be able to interact with Deluge via the lightweight interface.

It’s not quite the same as the ThinClient, but it’s robust enough for light use and has the added benefit of serving as the point of connection for lots of torrent-control mobile apps.

Step Two: Configure Your Proxy or VPN

You might be tempted to start downloading torrents now,but wait! Don’t do that yet. It’s absolutely reckless to use a BitTorrent Client without first shuttling your connection through a proxy server or VPN.

RELATED:How to Choose the Best VPN Service for Your Needs

If you didn’t read over How To Anonymize and Encrypt Your BitTorrent Traffic yet, now is the time to do so. Read over the first section (for a better understanding of why it is important to protect your BitTorrent connection), and then sign up for a proxy service or, better yet, a good VPN before continuing on.

If you’re using a VPN, it’s pretty simple: Just choose a VPN that offers a Linux client. Then, download and install the Linux client on your Pi, start it up, and connect to your desired server. (You may even want to set it to launch when the Raspberry Pi boots, so it’s always connected to the VPN.)

If you’re using a proxy, you can plug its information into Deluge under Preferences > Proxy. You need to fill out the Peer, Web Seed, Tracker, and DHT sections like so, placing your proxy username and password in the appropriate slots. Your proxy service’s Type, Host, and Port may differ, so be sure to check its documentation.

In order for the proxy settings to take effect, you need to restart the Deluge daemon. From the terminal enter the following commands:

sudo pkill delugeddeluged

After that, you should be all set.

The best way to test that you’re actively using the proxy or VPN is to download a torrent file designed expressly to report back its IP address. You can find many of these torrents online, including this one from BTGuard and this one from TorGuard. Load either or both torrents into Deluge and wait a moment.

After the torrents have had a chance to connect to their respective trackers, select the torrents in the Deluge client and check the “Tracker Status” entry as seen above. Both will report the IP address they detect from your client. If that IP address matches your public IP address, then the proxy or VPN is not configured properly and you should return to the previous section to check your configuration. If it is configured properly, you’ll see the proxy or VPN’s IP address and not your own.

Step Three: Configure Your Download Location

Next, you’ll need to configure Deluge to use your external hard drive. If you followed along with the hard drive mounting instructions in this previously mentioned guide, you’re ready with a hard drive set to auto-mount on boot.

From there, all you need to do is change the default locations in Deluge. Navigate to Deluge’s Preferences  and head to the Downloads tab. By default, Deluge directs everything to /home/pi. That little SD card is going to fill up real fast, however, so we need to change it.

First, we’re going to create some new folders in /media/USBHDD1/shares, which is the share folder we already set up in the Low-Power Network Storage tutorial. That way, we can easily access our downloaded torrents over the network and have a network accessible watch folder for auto-loading torrent files. Use the following commands to create the folder set (adjusting the pathnames accordingly for your location if you’re not using the same Pi setup from the previous tutorial like we are):

sudo mkdir /media/USBHDD1/shares/torrents/downloading sudo mkdir /media/USBHDD1/shares/torrents/completed sudo mkdir /media/USBHDD1/shares/torrents/watch sudo mkdir /media/USBHDD1/shares/torrents/torrent-backups

Then, turn right around and plug those four new directories into Deluge.

Click OK to set the directories. There’s no need to restart as you did with the proxy setup.

Step Four: Test Your Connection

Now it’s time to download a large enough torrent that we can really see if the system is running smoothly. For our test we grabbed the .torrent file for the current Linux Mint distribution–it weighs in at solid 1.7GB, perfect for monitoring the connection speeds.

Once you’ve confirmed that your connection is stable and the Linux torrent is humming along nicely, it’s time to move onto the next step: automating the client startup.

Step Five: Configure Deluge to Run on Startup

Before we leave the Deluge setup, there is one final detail to attend to. We need to set up the Deluge daemon and WebUI to run automatically when our Raspberry Pi boots up. To do so simply and without the fuss of editing more complicated init files and settings, we’ll simple annotate the rc.local file. Run the following command in a Terminal to do so.

sudo nano /etc/rc.local

With the rc.local file loaded, add the following lines to the end of the file. Note: you do not need to add the the second command ending in “deluge-web” if you are not using the WebGUI. This may also be a good place to add your VPN program, if you’re using one.

# Start Deluge on boot: sudo -u pi /usr/bin/python /usr/bin/deluged  sudo -u pi /usr/bin/python /usr/bin/deluge-web

Your rc.local file should look something like this when you’re done (possibly with the addition of that VPN):

Press Ctrl+X to exit and save your work.

At this point, we would recommend restarting your Raspberry Pi, so fire off a “sudo reboot” at the command line. Once the Pi has finished rebooting, head to your other PC and try to connect to the Deluge ThinClient and/or WebUI to make sure they both work.

There are two major errors you may encounter here. First, a failure to connect at all means that the initialization scripts didn’t work. Open up the terminal on your Pi and manually start the daemon and WebUI using the commands we learned earlier in the tutorial.  Check to see that it works now. If it does, go back up and fix your rc.local script.

Second, if you can open up the client, but it shows permission errors for your existing torrents (like the Linux torrent we used to test things earlier), that indicates that your external hard drive was not mounted, or mounted incorrectly. Review the sections on installing an external drive and setting it to auto-mount on boot in our Low-Power Network Storage tutorial.

Enhancing Your Torrenting Experience

Now that you have your torrent box configured and ready to rock, there are a few additional tools and modifications you can look into to really enhance your user experience. None of these tips and tricks are necessary, but they do make your Raspberry Pi turned Torrent Box easier to use.

Add Mobile Access: Consider downloading a mobile control app like Transdroid and Transdrone for Android. Unfortunately we don’t have any solid suggestions for iOS users, as Apple has taken a really aggressive stance towards torrent-related apps in the App Store (and has banned any apps that slipped through the submission process).

Deluge doesn’t currently have a mobile-optimized template for the WebUI, but it’s more than functional on tablets like the iPad and Kindle Fire.

Set Up a Shared Drop Folder: Although we mentioned it briefly earlier in the tutorial, ensure that the /torrents/watch/ folder you created is accessible on your network. It’s really convenient to be able to dump a pile of .torrent files into the folder and have Deluge load them up automatically.

Install Browser Plugins: There are several Deluge-centered plugins for Chrome and Firefox that improve the user experience, including:

  • Chrome:
    • DelugeSiphon: Enables .torrent adding from the WebUI
    • Deluge Remote: Simple view of current torrents and their progress
  • Firefox:
    • BitTorrent WebUI+: Enables .torrent adding from the WebUI
    • WebUI Quick Add Torrent: Greasemonkey Script that adds clickable icon on webpages for easy torrent adding

Activate Deluge Plugins: There are a host of great plugins already included in Deluge, and even more third-party plugins. Some of the included plugins you may want to take advantage of include:

  • Notification: You receive email alerts from Deluge on torrent completion and other events
  • Scheduler: Limit bandwidth based on time of day

You can find these in Preferences > Plugins. Check the ones you want and a new entry will appear in the preferences menu (e.g. Preferences > Notifications).

For more information about third party plugins and how to install them, check out the Plugins page in the Deluge Wiki.

Etter å ha konfigurert, testet og finjustert forbedringer og plugins, har du en mer enn i stand torrentboks som koster bare øre om dagen å operere. Finn et rolig sted som ikke er i veien for å koble den til, last den opp med torrents, og la den gjøre det tunge løftet med nedlasting og såing for deg.